Important Dates Concerning the Public Domain

The following dates apply to the USA only. We're concentrating on the USA as this has the most creative works available in the Public Domain. We'll come to the UK later on.

• DECEMBER 31st 1922

• 1st JANUARY 1923 – 31st DECEMBER 1963

• IMPORTANT NUMBERS: 28, 67 (or 95)

Anything published in the USA before 1923 ie up to December. 31st 1922, is in the public domain – period! Whatever it is, be it book, photo, painting, music * it does not matter – it's in the Public Domain which means you can do whatever you want with it.

* Actually only sheet music or song lyrics can be in the Public Domain in the USA – ALL music in the form of sound recordings are under copyright until at least 2067. However there is a way to download certain recordings and we'll cover those in another post which will also cover where to find them.

31st Jan. 1923 – 31st Dec. 1963 – Anything published between these two dates automatically came with a 28 year copyright. However if the copyright was NOT renewed in the 28th year then the work fell into the Public Domain. If it was renewed then the copyright extended for another 67 years or 95 years from first being published.

Example: If a work was published in 1930 and the copyright was renewed in 1958 then the copyright would not run out until 2025 (1958 + 67 years = 2025) The other calculation is to add 95 onto the year of publication which is in this case means 1930 + 95 = 2025. It just depends on whichever method you feel comfortable with.

Appropriately between 85% – 93% of all creative works published between these two dates NEVER had the copyright renewed. This means there is a vast ocean of in the available material for you to access and use in whichever way you want.

What about works published from 1964 onwards you might ask? Well from 1964 – 1977 copyright is automatically 95 years from date of publication which means it'll be 2059 before any of that material is in the Public Domain so it really is not relevant if, like me, you're in your 50's already !

This also applies to works published from 1978 onwards despite the length of time of copyright varies between 70 – 120 years or 75 years after the death of the author / creator. Again this is irrelevant for our purposes.

IMPORTANT – In the UK creative works have a copyright until the end of the 70th year after the death of the author / creator. Note that it's the end of the 70th year – not the 70th anniversary of the author's death. So if the author died in JUNE 1930 their work would not be in the Public Domain in the UK until the 1st January 2001

Now it's also important to note that even if the work was published and in the Public Domain in one country it does not mean it's in the Public Domain in another. A good example here is PETER PAN written by JM Barrie.

This was written in 1920 and published in the UK then. It was also published in the USA in 1922 so technically it was in the Public Domain in the USA but NOT in the UK as the author was still alive! In fact he did not die until 1937 so Peter Pan would not normally come into the public domain in the UK until 2008.

However an amendment to the 1988 Copyright Designs and Patents Act in the UK was passed to allow the copyright for Peter Pan to run indefinitely in the UK with all royalties being associated to the trustees of the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London, for as long as the hospital exists.

The book could have been sold by anyone if they stayed in the USA without fear of violation of copyright but not so in the UK.

So you now know what dates to look for when searching for a product that's in the Public Domain. They are very important so keep them close for reference.

It's also important to note that there is a lot of information published that does not have copyright. This applications to government publications as these are produced for the general public and paid for out of public funds and so can be used by the general public in any legal way.

There are easy ways to find out if a product is in the Public Domain, especially books which are the most popular product searched for, but we'll talk about those in another post.

Information Technology Schools in Atlanta

The demand for technically skilled workers is growing rapidly. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Information Technology is the fastest growing industry with a 68% increase, in output growth rate, projected between 2002 and 2012.

Finding an Information Technology School or university can be an overwhelming task with so much on offer.
For a qualification to have any value, it needs to be obtained from a properly accredited and state licensed Technical School or College. Once the credentials are in place, other factors such as technical courses on offer, financial aid, flexibility of courses and other unique features can become qualifying factors.

This article will look at the unique and flexible features of some of the schools in Atlanta, offering Information Technology courses.

Brown Mackie College has a unique feature in offering one month courses where the focus is on one subject per month. This allows for very flexible study time to be integrated with a job or other time demand factors. There is no need to wait for "fall" enrollment as courses continue each month. This Information Technology School is located within minutes from downtown Atlanta. A shuttle bus from the train station takes students to the campus. Technical programs focus primarily on Computer Technology with courses in Information Technology, Database Technology, Networking and Software Technology.

De Very University comes highly recommended and offers a variety of technical courses in their College of Engineering and Information Science as well as the College of Media Arts and Technology. The university is unique in allowing students to take courses at any of the other Atlanta campuses. Students are further allowed to do part of their studies online. More than 85% of De Vry students receive financial aid in one or other form. A 90% career success rate and a dedicated career service team ensure that students at this school will get the help they need to become successful in the demanding job market.

At Westwood College working professionals, in their specific technical fields, are employed as instructors. The aim is to not only tutor but for students to get hands on technical experience while learning. Classes can be taken during the day, evening or online. A unique and valuable feature of this college is their alumni tuition program. To keep up to date with the rapidly changing world of technology they offer free courses to their alumni students. Definitely something to consider for years to come.

The Art Institute of Atlanta is a Technical School that uniquely caters for the creatively inclined. Media Arts focus on the artistic side of Computer Technology. Film making, Animation, Game and Web Design are only a few of the courses they have to offer. This school makes it possible for those students that can not study full time to achieve their goals by enrolling in an evening or weekend program.

All these schools have unique and versatile features to cater for the needs of all prospective students and the growing Information Technology market.

Outdoor Electrical Enclosures and What’s Important to Know

Outdoor electrical enclosures can be found on most streets are usually house electrical circuitry allowing access to things such as electricity, broadband and cable television to all of the houses that have the correct hardware installed. If there's something wrong with your cable for example, it'll often be the case that there's something malfunctioning within the enclosure which has to be fixed.

They're made out of a variety of materials depending on who's paying for it, as well as its geographical location, but they're usually made out of stainless steel. This is to protect against both the environment as well as people who are trying to either break in or simply to damage it for whatever reason. You do sometimes find enclosures made of materials such as aluminum but these are quite rare and there's usually a specific reason as to why they're made out of this. Some families / people with very large houses with their own electrical enclosure choose for it to be made out of wood to keep the aesthetic style for example. But again, this instance and the one previous are quite rare and by no means the norm. It's definitely possible to purchase custom outdoor enclosures, but it's only in specific circumstances these are purchased.

If you're looking to buy some outdoor electrical enclosures the first thing you must do is pick the right size to fit the electrical circuitry, as well as picking a design that fits in with the decor but which will also stand up to someone trying to break in.

Where to Look For Financial Help for Single Mothers

Being a single mom in today's society can be quite difficult, especially if you are unaware of where to turn to financial assistance when you are in need. Researching the topic online, you will discover that there are quite a few government programs and private institutions who offer financial help for single mothers. These programs may vary in qualification and the type of assistance they provide. However, it is comforting to know that there are organizations available to apply for help when you need it most.

Some of the different programs offering single mothers financial help include grant programs, educational scholarships to help single mothers complete their education to be able to get better jobs, training programs and more. Government or state grants offer both financial assistance for furthering your education and financial help for daily living, such as funds to help you pay your rent, purchase food and clothing, transportation costs, etc. Contacting the Department of Human Services where you live would be the first step to obtaining this assistance, as they would be able to explain the process for applying.

For women who find themselves alone with their children due to escaping from an abusive relationship, the Sunshine Lady Foundation offers financial assistance in the form of funds for furthering their education and funds for crisis situations. The Our Families, Our Future organization provides job-training programs for single mothers so that they will be able to find employment to sustain them and their families as an alternative to welfare or other free government assistance.

Many colleges in an effort to assist single mothers in completing their education will offer assistance in the form of institutional grants. For those interested in studying through online educational programs, some universities will provide the free use of computers to make it as feasible as possible for them to complete their education. Some colleges even go so far as allowing moms to keep their computers upon completion of their degree or educational program as a further incentive to finish their education.

Your local phone directory also has numerous listings of possible assistance programs that offer financial help for single mothers. There are numerous private and government institutions which primary concern is helping single parents find their feet in society either by providing job opportunities, educational opportunities or providing cash to subsidize their income for their immediate needs. There are websites online which supply free financial counsel and information on how mothers who are single can purchase a new home, receive financial grants, get out of debt, apply for loans, etc.

Single parents do not need to feel they are alone in their struggle to provide for themselves and their children. Financial help for single mothers is available through many resources. You can seek the help you need through researching your options in your local phone book or online. Single mothers should take advantage of the many forms of financial assistance available to help improve their situations and make a better future for themselves and their children.